Thursday, 25 August 2016

6 Management Lessons to Learn from Lord Krishna

On this auspicious Krishna Janmashtami ( Birthday of Lord Krishna ), let’s have a look at the 8 management lessons that we can learn from the God himself.

1) Never take side based on relations
Being an upholder of Dharma, Krishna would never take sides based on relations. An attribute similar to the concept of Internal Equity in management terms.
So, Krishna not only gives both of them an equal opportunity to take him into their sides(and Duryodhana pretty much knows it, the reason why he approaches Krishna), he also decides to be fair again and asks Arjuna to make a choice between himself and his entire army. Arjuna chooses Krishna himself, and the entire army is given to Duryodhana.

2) Everyone should feel equally appreciated & safe within realms of organization culture
The Raas Leela happens in dark forests, where the girls are away from security of home and family, yet feel secure enough. They dance around Krishna, not for any duty or custom, they do so for the love of him, at their own free will. Krishna is believed to be giving complete attention to each and every girl, and the moment they try to gather more part of his attention or feel Krishna loves her more, Krishna disappears for her.

3) Commitments First
Once Krishna knew he was to kill Kansa and then be crowned as the King, Radha chooses to stay back and keep alive the memories of their love together. A staunch believer of Karma, Krishna knew his destiny was now different from Radha and their love would never be the same once they are together in the palace. Her staying back would etch their eternal love forever in the Vrindavan.

4) The Strategist
As a smart strategist, he never broke any rule, but bent the semantics of the rules much to the benefit of the Pandavas against the mighty Kauravas

5) The Motivator
And finally the Bhagvad Geeta. For the sake of upliftment of Dharma, and the destruction of Adharma, Krishna would never shy away from taking any step. Even if it would mean destruction, it would be creative. Arjuna was worried that the people he is fighting are his own family, and there will be blood shed. Krishna not only motivates him to gear up for the battle to follow, he emphasizes on creative destruction. He controls the entire army of Pandavas under his single command and guides them to victory, in spite of facing the mammoth Kauravas.

6) Good Manager
Krishna had vowed not to play any combative role in the entire war. He was there as a strategist, motivator, a guiding force, never really taking part in the war physically, the qualities a good manager ought to have. In-spite of a smaller workforce, he guides them to success, purely based on his management skills. Skills, which no one taught him,which cannot be imparted, he learnt it himself. Each chapter of his life, be it his friendship with Sudama, his friendship with Arjuna, his fight with Kansa, has a lot to teach us.

Source: Lord Krishna

Tuesday, 2 August 2016

Top 10 Job Interview Tips and Tricks

Interviewers are people to, and like people they can be manipulated into doing your bidding until you’ve taken over the world! Okay, not really. But there are some tips and tricks that will help you win them over in the job interview. Below, in no particular order, are the top 10.

How to Ace the Interview
·         Mock Interviews
Mock interviews are fake interviews that you conduct with a friend. We have several posts that go through exactly how you can get the best learnings out of your mock interviews. How to Conduct a Mock Interview –  Part 1 is here, do enough of these and no interview will make you nervous.
·         Research Company AND Competition
Thoroughly researching the company is extremely important. Have a look at our full report on how to research a company effectively before you start your research. Research the competition  just as thoroughly, this will teach you much more about the industry. Before the interview review the company’s website, social assets,  get a copy of the annual report and run a general Google search. Contact the prospective employer and request details on the position you are interviewing for. Memorise the job description, it is what you’re being judged by. 
·         Find Additional Skills
You may also want to look at what other companies say in their job descriptions for the same job. This gives you a way to show what additional skills you can bring to the role on top of the ones they have listed. Think about including Soft Skills too. For example if you were applying for a role in Marketing, soft skills like embracing change and identifying opportunities are critical. If you are an engineer than focus on communication skills and lateral thinking etc…
·         Be Outgoing From the Start
First impressions can make or break the interview. No matter how nervous you are, start off strong by actively shaking their hand and talking. It may help you make up for any mistakes later. You also need to look the part. Make sure you are dressed professionally and appropriately for your industry. Download our FREE eBook – How to Dress For Your Interview and make sure you look right.
·         Ask Friendly Questions
“How’s your day so far?” “Have you been in CITY for long?” These questions build rapport so the interviewer begins to like you on a more personal level. Interviewers are not robots, they are people, and therefore their opinions can be swayed slightly by how likeable they find the candidates they interview.  You want to make sure they warm to you on a more personal level.
·         Eat, Drink, Sleep and Arrive Early
While these may seem like they should not need to be listed you would be surprised how many candidates arrive late or do not perform well because they have not eaten properly. Basic interview preparation like eating and sleeping and using the bathroom beforehand, will all help you be more confident in yourself during the interview.
·         Memorise Your Best Points
Take the time to think of examples where you have successfully used the skills you’ve acquired. Compile a list of responses to both background and behavioural interview questions which highlight your skills, values, and interests as well as your key strengths. Have a look at our list of the 15 Most Common Behavioural Interview Questions to help you prepare.
·         Ask Amazing Questions
The better your questions are to the interviewer, the more they will remember you and feel that you’re someone they need to hire. Put together a list of question that relate specifically to the company you are interviewing with and if possible targeted to the department you are hoping to work in.

·         Be Positive
Never say anything overtly negative about anyone you have worked with in the past. You want to be seen as a person who is positive, upbeat and great to have around.
Acing a job interview involves a lot of practice, a lot of time reviewing questions and answers, and a lot of preparation. The above tips will help make sure that you’re more than ready for the interview and give you the best chance of success.

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Friday, 15 April 2016

Ten Tough Interview Questions and Ten Great Answers

Ten Tough Interview Questions and Ten Great Answers

The best way to prepare yourself for the interview is to know what may be coming and practice for it in advance. Fear of the unknown can only exist when there is an unknown. Take the time to understand some of the "standards" when it comes to interviewing questions.
The following are some of the most difficult questions you will face in the course of your job interviews. Some questions may seem rather simple on the surface—such as "Tell me about yourself"—but these questions can have a variety of answers. The more open ended the question, the wider the variation in the answers. Once you have become practiced in your interviewing skills, you will find that you can use almost any question as a launching pad for a particular topic or compelling story.
Others are classic interview questions, such as "What is your greatest weakness?" Questions most people answer improperly. In this case, the standard textbook answer for the "greatest weakness" question is to provide a veiled positive such as: "I work too much. I just work and work and work." Wrong. Either you are lying or, worse yet, you are telling the truth, in which case you define working too much as a weakness and really do not want to work much at all.
The following answers are provided to give you a new perspective on how to answer tough interview questions. They are not there for you to lift from the page and insert into your next interview. They are provided for you to use as the basic structure for formulating your own answers. While the specifics of each reply may not apply to you, try to follow the basic structure of the answer from the perspective of the interviewer. Answer the questions behaviorally, with specific examples that show that clear evidence backs up what you are saying about yourself. Always provide information that shows you want to become the very best _____ for the company and that you have specifically prepared yourself to become exactly that. They want to be sold. They are waiting to be sold. Don't disappoint them!

1. Tell me about yourself.

It seems like an easy interview question. It's open ended. I can talk about whatever I want from the birth canal forward. Right?
Wrong. What the hiring manager really wants is a quick, two- to three-minute snapshot of who you are and why you're the best candidate for this position.
So as you answer this question, talk about what you've done to prepare yourself to be the very best candidate for the position. Use an example or two to back it up. Then ask if they would like more details. If they do, keep giving them example after example of your background and experience. Always point back to an example when you have the opportunity.
"Tell me about yourself" does not mean tell me everything. Just tell me what makes you the best.

2. Why should I hire you?

The easy answer is that you are the best person for the job. And don't be afraid to say so. But then back it up with what specifically differentiates you.
For example: "You should hire me because I'm the best person for the job. I realize that there are likely other candidates who also have the ability to do this job. Yet I bring an additional quality that makes me the best person for the job—my passion for excellence. I am passionately committed to producing truly world class results. For example…"
Are you the best person for the job? Show it by your passionate examples.

3. What is your long-range objective?

The key is to focus on your achievable objectives and what you are doing to reach those objectives.
For example: "Within five years, I would like to become the very best accountant your company has on staff. I want to work toward becoming the expert that others rely upon. And in doing so, I feel I'll be fully prepared to take on any greater responsibilities which might be presented in the long term. For example, here is what I'm presently doing to prepare myself…"
Then go on to show by your examples what you are doing to reach your goals and objectives.

4. How has your education prepared you for your career?

This is a broad question and you need to focus on the behavioral examples in your educational background which specifically align to the required competencies for the career.
An example: "My education has focused on not only the learning the fundamentals, but also on the practical application of the information learned within those classes. For example, I played a lead role in a class project where we gathered and analyzed best practice data from this industry. Let me tell you more about the results…"
Focus on behavioral examples supporting the key competencies for the career. Then ask if they would like to hear more examples.

5. Are you a team player?

Almost everyone says yes to this question. But it is not just a yes/no question. You need to provide behavioral examples to back up your answer.
A sample answer: "Yes, I'm very much a team player. In fact, I've had opportunities in my work, school and athletics to develop my skills as a team player. For example, on a recent project…"
Emphasize teamwork behavioral examples and focus on your openness to diversity of backgrounds. Talk about the strength of the team above the individual. And note that this question may be used as a lead in to questions around how you handle conflict within a team, so be prepared.

6. Have you ever had a conflict with a boss or professor? How was it resolved?

Note that if you say no, most interviewers will keep drilling deeper to find a conflict. The key is how you behaviorally reacted to conflict and what you did to resolve it.
For example: "Yes, I have had conflicts in the past. Never major ones, but there have been disagreements that needed to be resolved. I've found that when conflict occurs, it helps to fully understand the other persons perspective, so I take time to listen to their point of view, then I seek to work out a collaborative solution. For example…"
Focus your answer on the behavioral process for resolving the conflict and working collaboratively.

7. What is your greatest weakness?

Most career books tell you to select a strength and present it as a weakness. Such as: "I work too much. I just work and work and work." Wrong. First of all, using a strength and presenting it as a weakness is deceiving. Second, it misses the point of the question.
You should select a weakness that you have been actively working to overcome. For example: "I have had trouble in the past with planning and prioritization. However, I'm now taking steps to correct this. I just started a planner app on my mobile t better plan and prioritize…" then pull out your mobile to show how you are using the app.
Talk about a true weakness and show what you are doing to overcome it.

8. If I were to ask your professors (or your boss) to describe you, what would they say?

This is a threat of reference check question. Do not wait for the interview to know the answer. Ask any prior bosses or professors in advance. And if they're willing to provide a positive reference, ask them for a letter of recommendation.
Then you can answer the question like this:
"I believe she would say I'm a very energetic person, that I'm results oriented and one of the best people with whom she has ever worked. Actually, I know she would say that, because those are her very words. May I show you her letter of recommendation?"
So be prepared in advance with your letters of recommendation.

9. What qualities do you feel a successful manager should have?

Focus on two words: leadership and vision. Then tell of how that leadership and vision translated into your personal delivered results.
Here is a sample of how to respond: "The key quality in a successful manager should be leadership—the ability to be the visionary for the people who are working under them. The person who can set the course and direction for subordinates, keeping them focused on what is most important for delivering the highest priority results. The highest calling of a true leader is inspiring others to reach the highest of their abilities. I'd like to tell you about a person whom I consider to be a true leader…"
Then give an example of someone who has touched your life and how their impact has helped in your personal development.

10. If you had to live your life over again, what one thing would you change?

Focus on a key turning point in your life or missed opportunity. Yet also tie it forward to what you are doing to still seek to make that change.
For example: "Although I'm overall very happy with where I'm at in my life, the one aspect I likely would have changed would be focusing earlier on my chosen career. I had a great internship this past year and look forward to more experience in the field. I simply wish I would have focused here earlier. For example, I learned on my recent internship…" then provide examples.
Stay focused on positive direction in your life and back it up with examples.

In reviewing these responses, please remember that they are only examples. Please do not rehearse them verbatim or adopt them as your own. They are meant to stir your creative juices and get you thinking about how to properly answer the broader range of questions that you will face.

Thursday, 11 February 2016

Food and Beverage - Before the Interview Information

Attending an interview for the Food and Beverage role ? here are few things that might be useful have a read through :- 

"Types of service"
  ‘Enter to learn, go forth to serve’
 A restaurant is a commercial establishment committed to the sale of food and beverage.  A restaurant may be a licensed part of a hotel operation, whereby the sales of the restaurant contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole. Restaurants may also be independent business entities under individual ownership and management.
 There are different types of restaurants:

Coffee Shop
A concept borrowed from the United States, distinguished by its quick service.  Food is pre-plate and the atmosphere informal. Table cover layouts are less elaborate and have basic essentials only.

Continental Restaurant
The atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure. The accent is on good continental food and elaborate service.

Specialty Restaurant
The entire atmosphere and décor are geared to a particular type of food or theme.  Thus restaurants, which offer Chinese, Japanese, Indian cuisine would be termed “specialty restaurants”.  The service is based more or less on the style of the country from which the particular cuisine originates.


There are some basic principles in food and beverage service that a waiter must know:

·       When food is served by the waiter at the table from a platter onto a guest plate, the service is done from the left.
·       When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usually done from the right, though modern convention permits service from the left also.
·       All beverages are served from the right.
·      Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiter from a large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is done from the left of the guest.
·      Ladies are always served first and the remaining guests clockwise. Soiled plates should always be cleared from the table from the right. Empty 
      crockery  and fresh cutlery are always served from the right. Never reach across a Customer. Hence, when a guest is present at the table, all items
      and equipment  on the right of guest must be placed from the right and that on the left from the left


English Service: Often referred to as the "Host Service" because the host plays an active role in the service. Food is brought on platters by the waiter and is shown to the host for approval. The waiter then places the platters on the tables. The host either portions the food into the guest plates directly or portions the food and allows the waiter to serve. For replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the dishes around for guests to help themselves or be served by the waiter.

French Services: It is a very personalized service. Food is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvers, which are placed directly on the table. The plates are kept near the dish and the guests help themselves.

Silver Service: The table is set for hors d'oeuvres, soup, main courses and sweet dish in sterling silverware. The food is portioned into silver platters at the kitchen itself which are placed at the sideboard with burners or hot plates to keep the food warm in the restaurant. Plates are placed before the guest. The waiter then picks the platter from the hot plate and presents the dish to the host for approval. He serves each guest using a service spoon and fork. All food is presented in silver dishes with elaborate dressing.

American Service: The American service is a pre-plated service which means that the food is served into the guest's plate in the kitchen itself and brought to the guest. The portion is predetermined by the kitchen and the accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire presentation in terms of nutrition and color. This type of service is commonly used in a coffee shop where service is required to be fast.

Cafeteria Service: This service exists normally in industrial canteens, colleges, hospitals or hotel cafeterias. To facilitate quick service, the menu is fixed and is displayed on large boards. The guest may have to buy coupons in advance, present them to the counter waiter who then serves the desired item. Sometimes food is displayed behind the counter and the guests may indicate their choice to the counter attendant. The food is served pre-plated and the cutlery is handed directly to the guest. Guests may then sit at tables and chairs provided by the establishment. Sometimes high tables are provided where guests can stand and eat.

Counter Service: (Snack-bar Service) Tall stools are placed along a counter so that the guest may eat the food at the counter itself. In better establishments, the covers are laid out on the counter itself. Food is either displayed behind the counter for the guests to choose from, or is listed on a menu card or common black board.

Grill Room Service: In this form of service various meats are grilled in front of the guest. The meats may be displayed behind a glass partition or well decorated counter so that the guest can select his exact cut of meat. The food comes pre-plated.

Room Service: It implies serving of food and beverage in guest rooms of hotels. Small orders are served in trays. Major means are taken to the room on trolleys. The guest places his order with the room service order taker. The waiter receives the order and transmits the same to the kitchen. In the meanwhile he prepares his tray or trolley. He then goes to the cashier to have a cheque prepared to take along with the food order for the guests’ signature or payment. Usually clearance of soiled dishes from the room is done after half an hour or an hour. However, the guest can telephone Room Service for the clearance as and when he has finished with the meal.

There are two types of Room Service:

·       Centralized:     Here al the food orders are processed from the main kitchen and sent to the rooms by a common team of waiters.

·       Decentralized: Each floor or a set of floor may have separate pantries to service them. Orders are taken at a central point by order-takers who in turn
                                  convey the order to the respective pantry.

Mobile Pantries: Some hotels have pantries installed in service elevators. Orders are received by a central point that convey it to the mobile pantry. The pantry has to just switch on the floor and give instant service. For the sake of information, in countries, which have a shortage of manpower, large hotels install mechanized dispensing units in rooms. The guest inserts the necessary value of coins into the machine, which will eject pre-prepared food and beverages for guest consumption.

Buffet Service: A self-service where food is displayed on tables. The guest takes his plate from a stack at the end of each table or requests the waiter behind the buffet table to serve him.

For sit-down buffet service, tables are laid with crockery and cutlery as in a restaurant. The guest may serve himself at the buffet table and return to eat at the guest table laid out. The waiter may serve a few courses like the appetizer and soup at the table.

Russian Service: An elaborate silver service much on the lines of French service except that the food is portioned and carved by the waiter at the gueridon trolley in the restaurant in full view of the guests. Display and presentation are a major part of this service. The principle involved is to have whole joints, poultry, game and fish elaborately dressed and garnished, presented to guests and carved and portioned by the waiter.

Gueridon Service: This is a service where a dish comes partially prepared from the kitchen to be completed in the restaurant by the waiter or, when a complete meal is cooked at the table-side in the restaurant. The cooking is done on a gueridon trolley which is a mobile trolley with a gas cylinder and burners. The waiter plays a prominent part, as he is required to fillet, carve, flambé and prepare the food with showmanship. The waiter has to have considerable dexterity and skill.
Breakfast Services:

There are basically two types of breakfast offered in hotels and restaurants. The Continental Breakfast and the English Breakfast. The Continental Breakfast originated in Europe. It is a light meal as the Europeans normally have a heavy mid-day meal. The English breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. A traditional English breakfast runs into six or seven courses.

Continental Breakfast

Consists of bread rolls or toast with jam, honey, or marmalade and rounded off with tea or coffee. Better hotels may serve brioches and croissants. The cover layout consists of

(a) A side plate and a side knife
(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate
(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
(d) A sugar pot with tongs
(e) A bread boat or toast rack
(f)  Serviette
(g) Jam, marmalade and honey pots

Note: There are variations to the Continental Breakfast. Cafe com- plate refers to Continental Breakfast with coffee (or tea) while cafe simple refers to just coffee or tea with nothing to eat.

English Breakfast:

Is more elaborate and offers a choice of juices (or fresh or stewed fruits), cereals, fish course, choice of eggs, meat course, toast with jam, marmalade or honey, and finally, tea or coffee. The cover consists of :

(a) A side plate and a side knife
(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate
(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
(d) A sugar pot (a tongs, if there are sugar cubes)
(e) A cruet set
(/) A fish knife and fish fork
(g) Dinner knife and fork
(h) Jam, marmalade and honey
(i) Dessert spoon and fork
(j) Serviette

Typical English breakfast Menu:

·       Chilled fruit juices : Orange, pineapple. tomato, grapefruit.
·       Stewed fruit : Prunes, pears, apples, figs.
·       Cereals: Porridge, cornflakes.
·       Fish: Grilled herring, fried sole.
·       Eggs: Poached, boiled, scrambled, fried, omelets
·       Meat: Sausages, bacon, salami, kidney, breakfast steak.
·       Breads: Toast, rolls, brioche, croissant, bread sucks.
·       Preserves: Jam, marmalade, honey.
·       Beverage: Tea, coffee, hot chocolate.
·       Eggs can be served with: grilled tomatoes, sautéed mushrooms, baked beans, fried potatoes.



One of the technical terms very often used in the hospitality industry is a "cover". What does this mean? There are 2 definitions according to the context

1) When discussing how many guests a restaurant or dining room will seat or how many guests will be attending a certain cocktail party, we refer to the total number of guests concerned as so many "covers".

2) When laying a table in readiness for service there are a variety of place settings, which have to be laid according to the type of meal and service being offered. This place setting is a type of cover being laid. In other words a cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to a lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal.


This cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for each course will be laid just before each course is served. The traditional cover given below represents the cover for hors d' oeuvres which is the first course in a classic menu sequence.

·       Fish plate
·       Serviette
·       Fish knife
·       Fish fork
·       Side plate
·       Side knife
·       Wine glass

When an a la carte cover is being laid, the cutlery and flatware required by the guest for the dishes ordered will be placed course by course. In other words there should not be at any time during the meal, more cutlery and flatware on the table than is required by the guest at that specific time.


This cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for the entire meal will be laid before the first course is served. The traditional cover is given below:

·       Serviette
·       Soup spoon
·       Fish knife
·       Fish fork
·       Meat knife
·       Meat fork
·       Dessert spoon
·       Dessert fork
·       Side plate
·       Side knife
·       Wine glass 

When a Table d’hote cover has been laid, the steward should remove, after the order has been taken, any unnecessary cutlery and flatware and really any extra items that may be required.

After the above covers have been laid, the table-layout should be completed by the addition of the following items:

·       Cruet set
·       Ashtray
·       Bud vase

All applicable cutlery and flatware should be laid 1.25 cm from the edge of the table. Water goblets after polishing should be placed at the top right-hand of the cover.

DEFINITION: One cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal, for a single person.

Size Of One Cover = 18x24 Inches.


Standard Table Setup

C.   Central Appointments

·       Ash Tray
·       Flower Vase
·       Cruet Set

D.   For One Cover

·       Cheese Plate
·       Butter Knife/Side Knife
·       All Purpose Fork
·       All Purpose Spoon
·       All Purpose Knife
·       Dinner Napkin
·       Water Goblet


·       Round Table (4 Covers)                           3 Feet In Diameter
·       Round Table (8 Covers)                           5 Feet In Diameter
·       Rectangular Table (4 Covers)                 4 Feet 6 Inches  x  2 Feet  6 Inches.
·       Square Table (2 Covers)                          2 Feet 6 Inches Square
·       Square Table (4 Covers)                          3 Feet Square



·       Round Table (4 Covers)                                            54 Inches  x  54 Inches
·       Square Table (2 Covers)                                           54 Inches  x  54 Inches
·       Square Table (4 Covers)                                           72 Inches  x  72 Inches
·       Rectangular Table (4 Covers)                                  72 Inches  x  54 Inches


·       Dinner Napkin                                        18  Inches Square
·       Cocktail Napkin                                      06 Inches Square


·       Height Of Chair                                      18 Inches From The Ground to Base and 39 Inches
·       Height Of Table                                      02 Feet 6 Inches From Ground To Top


·       All Purpose Spoon                                08  Inches
·       All Purpose Knife                                  10 Inches
·       All Purpose Fork                                    08 Inches


1)   Hors D'oeuvre

Being of a highly seasoned and piquant in nature, this course
is used to manipulate the appetite for the dishes that are to follow. In
recent years, hors d’oeuvres have gained in popularity, and now
appear even on simple menus in modest eating places. Although the
actual term “hors d’oeuvres” applies to the service of various cold
salads and morsels of anchovy, sardines, olives, prawns, etc., it also
covers whatever items are served before the soup.
Examples of such hors d’oeuvres:
· Melon Melon Frappe
· Oysters Huitres Nature
· Smoked Salmon Saumon Fumee
· Caviar Caviar
· Grapefruit Pamplemousse
· Salami
· Potted Shrimps Petites Pots de Crevettes
· Shrimp, Prawn or Lobster Cocktail
· Fruit Cocktail Coupe Florida
· Souses Herrings Hareng Dieppoise
· Pate of Goose Liver Pate de Foie Gras
There are also quite a number of items that may be served
hot, such as Bouchees, Croquettes, Fritters, etc., and these are
known as ors d’oeuvres chaud.

2) Potage
The French have three separate words for soup. Consommé
is a clear, thin broth. Soupe refers to a thick, hearty mélange with
chunks of food. Potage falls somewhere between the two in texture,
content and thickness. A potage is usually puréed and is often thick,
well-seasoned meat or vegetable soup, usually containing barley or
other cereal or a pulse (e.g. lentils). Today, the words soupe and
potage are often used interchangeably. On good-class à la carte
menus, a fish soup is also usually offered for selection, the two most
common being “Bisque d’Homard” or “Bouillabaisse.”

3) Oeufs
Oeufs are the dishes made from egg. The omelette is the
most popular item, but there are other styles of cooking and
preparation of eggs such as boiled, en cocotte, poached or
scrambled. This course is not included in the dinner menu. Some
examples are omelette, Espagnole, Oeuf en Cocotte a la crime,
Oeuf poche florentine.

4) Farineux
This is Italy's contribution to the courses of the menu. It
includes different kinds of rice and pasta. Pasta dishs are spaghetti,
lasagne and gnocchi. Pasta is made from durum wheat semolina or
milled durum wheat to which water is added to form a dough. It can
be coloured and flavoured in various ways. There are more than 200

varieties of pasta. The ingredients, size, shape and colour determine
the type of pasta. Some examples include Spaghetti Bolognaise,
Lasagne Napolitaine and Macaroni au gratin.

5) Poisson
Poisson are the dishs made from fish. Fish, being soft-fibred,
prepares the palate for the heavier meats that follow. Deep-fried or
grilled fish dishes do not generally occupy a place on the “classical
dinner menu,” but are freely offered on the shorter-coursed luncheon
menu. This also applies to the coarser members of the fish family,
and the dinner menu is usually comprised of the finer fish prepared
and cooked in the more classical manners. Ideal fish for dinner menu
compilation are: Sole, Salmon, Halibut, Escallops, etc. Rarely seen
on a menu for the evening meal are: Cod, Bass, Haddock, Brill,
Hake, and Plaice. One deep-fried fish dish, which normally finds
itself on the dinner menu, however, is “Blanchaille”, and this only
because Whitebait are so light and in no way too filling for the
comfort of the guest.

6) Entrée
This is the first of the meat courses on a menu. It is always a
complete dish in itself. It is despatched from the kitchen garnished
and sauced in the manner in which it is intended to be served. The
“entrée” is always cooked and garnished in an artistic manner and
usually served with a rich sauce. The “entrée” can be devised of
almost anything light. This course consists of all the small cuts of
butcher’s meats, usually sautéed, but never grilled. Grilled steaks,
cutlets and chops invariably replace the joints as the roast (roti)
The following items, with their appropriate garnishes and
sauces, can be successfully served as entrées.
· Brains (Cervelles)
· Liver (Foie)
· Oxtail (Queue de Boeuf)
· Kidneys (Rognons)
· Calves Head (Tete de Veau)
· Trips (Tripes)
· Rump, Entrecote and Tournedo Beefsteaks
· Lamb Chops and cutlets - Noisettes and Filet Mignons
· Pork Chops and cutlets
· Escallops, Granadins, Medallions, and Cotes of Veal
· Sweetbreads - (Ris de Veau / Agneau)
· Hot Souffles or Mousses
· Bouchees
· Pilaws and Rizottos
· Small cuts or portions of poultry, individually cooked, are
also served as entrées
In first-class hotels and restaurants, all entrées are cooked,
garnished and presented for service by the sauce cook (saucier).

7) Relevé
This is the main meat course on the menu, and is commonly
known as the “piece de resistance.” It may consist of joint of any of
the following:
Lamb (Agneau) Chicken (Poulet)
Beef (Boeuf) Duckling (Caneton)
Veal (Veau) Fowl (Poulard)
Ham (Jambon) Tongue (Langue)
Pork (Pore)
These joints would be cooked by the sauce cook in a firstclass
hotel or restaurant, by any method except roasting. They are
usually cooked on casserole, braise or poêle. Generally cooked in a
sauce and served with it.

8) Sorbet
This course is a rest between courses. It counteracts the
previous dishes, and rejuvenates the appetite for those that are to
follow. Normally served between the releve/remove and the roti, it is
a water and crushed ice slush flavored as a rule with champagne
and served in a glass. A frozen dessert made primarily of fruit juice,
sugar, and water, and also containing milk, egg white, or gelatin.
Some examples are Sorbet Italian and Sorbet creme de menthe.
Russian or Egyptian cigarettes are often passed around during this

9) Roti - Roast
This course normally consists of game or poultry and is often
included in the entree. Each dish is accompanied with its own
particular sauce and salad. Some examples are Roast chicken,
Braised duck and Roast quail.
10) Legumes
These are vegetable dishes that can be served separately as
an individual course or may be included along - with the entrée,
relevé or roast courses. Some examples are Cauliflower mornay,
Baked potato and Grilled tomatoes.

11) Entremets
Entremets on a menu refers to desserts. This could include
hot or cold sweets, gateaux, soufflés or ice-cream. Some examples
are Apple pie, Chocolate souffle and Cassata ice-cream.

12) Savoureux

A dish of pungent taste, such as anchovies on toast or
pickled fruit. They are seved hot on toast or as savoury soufflé.
Welsh rarebit, Scotch woodcock, Canape diane are some of the
examples. Fromage (Cheese) is an alternative to the outdated
savoury course, and may be served before or after the sweet course.
It is usually served with butter, crackers and occasionally celery.
Gouda, Camembert and Cheddar are some examples of cheese.

13) Desservir
Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal.
The French word desservir mean "to clear the table." This is the fruit
course usually presented in a basket and placed on the table, as part
of the table decor, and served at the end of the meal. All forms of
fresh fruit and nuts may be served in this course. Common desserts
include cakes, cookies, fruits, pastries and candies.

Tuesday, 9 February 2016

Top 20 interview Questions and Answers read through before your interview

First and foremost, congratulations if you have an interview! That in itself is commendable, so now you just want to make sure you come across in the best possible light. I have been asked numerous times what to do in preparation for interviews. While there is no way of predicting exactly what you will be asked, here are 20 common questions that tend to come up. This is by no means an exhaustive list. The purpose is to illustrate the importance of preparation and refreshing your memory regarding specific projects and situations.

1. Tell me about yourself.
This is probably the most asked question in an interview. It breaks the ice and gets you to talk about something you should be fairly comfortable with. Have something prepared that doesn't sound rehearsed. It's not about you telling your life story and quite frankly, the interviewer just isn't interested. Unless asked to do so, stick to your education, career and current situation. Work through it chronologically from the furthest back to the present.

2. Why are you looking for another job (or why did you leave your previous job)?
On the surface, this appears to be a simple question, yet it is easy to slip. I would suggest not mentioning money at this stage as you may come across as totally mercenary. If you are currently employed, you can say it's about developing your career and yourself as an individual. If you are in the unfortunate position of having been downsized, stay positive and keep it brief. If you were fired, you should have a solid explanation. whatever your circumstances, do not talk about the drama but remember to stay positive.

3. What do you know about this organization?
Do your homework prior to the interview. Doing the background work will help you stand out. Find out who the main players are -- have they been in the news recently? You're not expected to know every date and individual but you need to have a solid understanding of the company as a whole.

4. Why do you want this job?
This question typically follows on from the previous one. Here is where your research will come in handy. You may want to say that you want to work for a company that is x, y, z, (market leader, innovator, provides a vital service, whatever it may be). Put some thought into this beforehand, be specific and link the company's values and mission statement to your own goals and career plans.

5. Who are our main competitors?
This shows you really understand the industry and the main players.
Think about a few and say how you think they compare (similarities, differences). This is a good opportunity to highlight what you think are the company's key strengths.

6. What would your previous co-workers say about you?
This is not the arena for full disclosure. You want to stay positive and add a few specific statements or paraphrase. Something like "Joe Blogs always mentioned how reliable and hard working I was" is enough.

7. How do you handle stressful situations and working under pressure?
There are several ways of addressing this one. You may be the sort of person that works well under pressure; you may even thrive under pressure. Whatever the case, make sure you don't say you panic. You want to give specific examples of stressful situations and how well you dealt with them. You may also want to list a few tools you use to help you, such as to-do lists, etc. It is alright to say that you will ask for assistance when the job is more than what you can handle. It is equally acceptable to say that you work best under pressure if this is indeed the case and relevant to the particular role.

8. Are you applying for other jobs?
If you are serious about changing jobs then it is likely that you are applying to other positions. It is also a way of showing that you are in demand. Be honest but don't go into too much detail; you don't want to spend a great deal of time on this. If asked about names of who you have spoken to, it is absolutely legitimate to say you prefer not to disclose that information at this stage.

9. What are you like working in a team?
Your answer is of course that you are an excellent team player; there really is no other valid answer here as you will not function in an organization as a loner. You may want to mention what type of role you tend to adopt in a team, especially if you want to emphasize key skills such as leadership. Be prepared to give specific examples in a very matter of fact sort of way.

10. What sort of person do you not like to work with?
This is not an easy one as you have no idea whom you would be working with. Even if you can immediately think of a long list of people who you don't like to work with, you could take some time to think and say that it's a difficult question as you have always gotten on fine with your colleagues.

11. What is your greatest strength?
This is your time to shine. Just remember the interviewer is looking for work related strengths. Mention a number of them such as being a good motivator, problem solver, performing well under pressure, loyal, positive attitude, eager to learn, taking the initiative, attention to detail. Whichever you go for, be prepared to give examples that illustrate this particular skill.

12. What is your biggest weakness?
This is a challenging question -- as if you have no weaknesses you are obviously lying! Be realistic and mention a small work related flaw.
Many people will suggest answering this using a positive trait disguised as a flaw such as "I'm a perfectionist" or "I expect others to be as committed as I am." I would advocate a certain degree of honesty and list a true weakness. Emphasize what you've done to overcome it and improve. This question is all about how you perceive and evaluate yourself.

13. What has been your biggest professional disappointment/achievement so far?
If asked about disappointments, mention something that was beyond your control. Stay positive by showing how you accepted the situation and have no lingering negative feelings. If asked about your greatest achievement, choose an example that was important to you as well as the company. Specify what you did, how you did it and what the results were. Ideally, pick an example that can relate to the positions you are applying for.

14. What kind of decisions do you find most difficult to take?
There is no right or wrong answer here. The logic behind this type of question is that your past behaviour is likely to predict what you will do in the future. What the interviewer is looking for is to understand what you find difficult.

15. Tell me about a suggestion that you have made that has been successfully implemented.
Here the emphasis is on the implemented. You may have had many brilliant ideas, but what the interviewer is looking for is something that has actually materialized. Be prepared to briefly describe how it went from an idea to implementation stage.

16. Have you ever had to bend the rules in order to achieve a goal?
Beware of this type of question! Under no circumstances is it necessary to break company policy to achieve something. Resist the temptation to answer and give examples, as what the interviewer is looking for is to determine how ethical you are and if you will remain true to company policy.

17. Are you willing to travel or relocate if necessary?
This is something you need to have very clear in your mind prior to the meeting. There is no point in saying yes just to get the job if the real answer is actually no. Just be honest as this can save you problems arising in the future.

18. Why should we hire you?
This is an important question that you will need to answer carefully.
It is your chance to stand out and draw attention to your skills, especially those that haven't already been addressed. Saying "because I need a job" or "I'm really good" just won't cut it. Don't speculate about other candidates and their possible strengths or flaws. Make sure you focus on you. Explain why you make a good employee, why you are a good fit for the job and the company and what you can offer.
Keep it succinct and highlight your achievements.

19. Regarding salary, what are your expectations?
This question is always a tricky one and a dangerous game to play in an interview. It is a common mistake to discuss salary before you have sold yourself, and like in any negotiation, knowledge is power. Do your homework and make sure you have an idea of what this job is offering. You can try asking them about the salary range. If you want to avoid the question altogether, you could say that at the moment, you are looking to advance in your career and money isn't your main motivator. If you do have a specific figure in mind and you are confident you can get it, then it may be worth going for it.

20. Do you have any questions for us?
This one tends to come up every time. Have some questions prepared.
This will show you have done some research and are eager to know and learn as much as possible. You probably don't want to ask more than three or four questions. Try and use questions that focus on you becoming an asset to the company. A generic question might be "how soon can I start if I were to get the job." Another idea is to ask what you would be working on and how quickly they expect you to be able to be productive. Remember to ask about next steps and when you can expect to hear back.

Bare in mind that the interview starts from the minute you walk into the building until you leave and are out of sight. Don't think that just because you have left the meeting room, you are "off the hook."
You need to maintain an image of confidence, enthusiasm, competence, reliability and professionalism throughout.